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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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October-December 2022
Volume 8 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 463-564

Online since Friday, September 9, 2022

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REVIEW ARTICLES  

A review: The phytochemistry, pharmacology, and pharmacokinetics of Curcumae Longae Rhizoma (Turmeric) p. 463
Song-Tao Liu, Sen-Wang Zheng, A-Jiao Hou, Jia-Xu Zhang, Song Wang, Xue-Jiao Wang, Huan Yu, Liu Yang
DOI:10.4103/2311-8571.351523  
Curcumae Longae Rhizoma (CLR) is the rhizome of Curcuma longa L. Pharmacological studies show that CLR can be used to treat cervical cancer, lung cancer, lupus nephritis, and other conditions. In this paper, we review botany, traditional application, phytochemistry, pharmacological activity, and pharmacokinetics of CLR. The literature from 1981 to date was entirely collected from online databases, such as Web of Science, Google Scholar, China Academic Journals full-text database (CNKI), Wiley, Springer, PubMed, and ScienceDirect. The data were also obtained from ancient books, theses and dissertations, and Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae. There are a total of 275 compounds that have been isolated from CLR, including phenolic compounds, volatile oils, and others. The therapeutic effect of turmeric has been expanded from breaking blood and activating qi in the traditional sense to antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidation, neuroprotection, antibacterial, hypolipidemic effects, and other benefits. However, the active ingredients and mechanisms of action related to relieving disease remain ill defined, which requires more in-depth research and verification at a clinical level.
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Application of photobiomodulation therapy in acupuncture p. 491
Dong Wu, Yan-Ling Zhao, Ru-Jun Dai, Pei-Jing Rong, Yu Wang
DOI:10.4103/wjtcm.wjtcm_12_22  
Photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy is a therapeutic method that can produce a range of physiological effects in cells and tissues using certain wavelengths. The reparative benefits of PBM therapy include wound healing, bone regeneration, pain reduction, and the mitigation of inflammation. Advances in the development of laser instruments, including the use of high-intensity lasers in physiotherapy, have recently led to controllable photothermal and photomechanical treatments that enable therapeutic effects to be obtained without damaging tissue. The combination of PBM therapy with acupuncture may provide new perspectives for investigating the underlying therapeutic mechanisms of acupuncture and promote its widespread application.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Hemogram parameters in fibromyalgia and effects of wet cupping therapy on hemogram parameters p. 497
Hümeyra Aslaner, Havva Talay Çalış, Çağlar Karabaşc, Ali Ramazan Benli
DOI:10.4103/wjtcm.wjtcm_73_21  
Objective: Wet cupping therapy (WCT) is one of the complementary and traditional therapies that are still must be scientifically interpreted. This study aimed to assess hemogram parameters that are subclinical inflammatory markers in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and observe how they were affected with WCT. Methods: The present study consisted of two groups; patient group included participants who were diagnosed with FMS and who received WCT and control group included healthy participants who received WCT within the concept of preventive medicine. Results: Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) values were higher in the patient group (P = 0.029 and P = 0.003, respectively). Considering that the participants had FMS, the optimal cutoff value for PLR was ≥1.62, sensitivity was 70%, specificity was 56%, positive predictive value was 61.7%, and negative predictive value was 65.3%. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve revealed a significant sensitivity and specificity (ROC area = 0.664), (confidence interval [CI]: 0.530–0.781) (P < 0.023). The optimal cutoff value for PLR was ≥146, sensitivity was 60%, specificity was 83%, positive predictive value was 78%, and negative predictive value was 67%. ROC curve revealed a statistically significant sensitivity and specificity (ROC area = 0.726), (CI: 0.59–0.83) (P < 0.001). The optimal cutoff value for platelet was ≥284,000, sensitivity was 83%, specificity was 40%, positive predictive value was 58%, and negative predictive value was 70%. ROC curve revealed a significant sensitivity and specificity (ROC area = 0.65), (CI: 0.51–0.76) (P = 0.036). Conclusion: NLR, PLR, and thrombocyte count parameters can be useful in the process of diagnosing FMS. In addition, NLR, PLR, and MPV decreased in patients who received WCT.
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Exploring the molecular mechanism of Radix Astragali on colon cancer based on integrated pharmacology and molecular docking technique p. 502
Yong Jiang, Yao-Dan Chang, Meng Wang, Yan-Ping Sun, Yu-Jin Bi, Zhi-Bin Wang, Hai-Xue Kuang
DOI:10.4103/2311-8571.355594  
Objective: The objective of this study was to study the mechanism of Radix Astragali on colon cancer by integrated pharmacology and molecular docking technique. Methods: Integrative pharmacology-based research platform of traditional Chinese medicine (TCMIP) V2.0 was used to obtain the chemical components and corresponding targets of Radix Astragali and the target information of colon cancer to create the main target network of drugs and diseases. Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis was carried out using Hiplot website, and the interaction network of “Traditional Chinese Medicine-component-target-pathway” was established, and molecular docking with main targets was carried out for the key components. Results: Twenty-seven chemical constituents of Radix Astragali, their 254 corresponding targets, and 44 colon cancer-related targets were obtained. Through proteins interacting, 70 nodes were obtained as core targets. GO analysis showed that it mainly acts on lipid metabolism, nuclear receptor activity, phagocytic cup, etc. KEGG pathway analysis showed that it was mainly enriched in the estrogen signaling pathway, C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, etc. The multidimensional network, quantitative estimate of the drug, and molecular docking showed that the main targets are AKT1, BCL2, and CDK6, and the key components involved are kumatakenin, astragaloside VIII, and choline. Conclusion: Kumatakenin, Astragaloside VIII, Choline and other compounds of Radix Astragali may affect colon cancer by acting on AKT1, BCL2 and other targets, thereby regulating estrogen signaling pathway, C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and so on. Those will provide theoretical reference for future research on the material basis and mechanism of its pharmacodynamics.
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New analysis of banxia xiexin decoction and its similar prescriptions in Treatise on Febrile Diseases to explore the universality of the treatment and compatibility principle p. 509
Ren-Ling Wei, Zheng-Feng Li, Ru-Sen Cao, Jian-Bin Zeng, Jian-Li Shen, Qiu-Lan Pei, Qi-Jun Liang
DOI:10.4103/2311-8571.343651  
Objective: The objective of this study is to explore the treatment and compatibility principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Materials and Methods: Syndrome differentiation is used to identify the etiology, nature, and location of a disease and the relationship between the healthy Qi and pathogenic factors by analyzing and synthesizing the four diagnostics data. The theory of treatment is to determine the principle and methods of treatment according to the results of syndrome differentiation and implement them as a specific prescription. This paper bears witness to the principle universality by analysis of the articles of the Banxia Xiexin Decoction, and it equally has analogical prescriptions in Treatise on Febrile Diseases. Results: The treatment and compatibility principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine are the same, that is, rectifying the deviation on three dimensions, strengthening the healthy Qi, and eliminating pathogenic factors in the light of its general trend. Conclusion: The treatment and compatibility principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine are the same, The treatment and compatibility principles provide a new thinking for clinical treatment.
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Ginkgo biloba waste resources and waste treatment combined with modern progress and development model p. 514
Ying-Si Zhong
DOI:10.4103/2311-8571.355593  
Background: Ginkgo biloba L. is listed in the Red List of Endangered Species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. G. biloba is an important medicinal plant in China and can be widely used in materials, gardens, and as a source of nutrients. With the large-scale planting of ginkgo plants, China, accounts for more than 70% of the world's total gingko output. Currently, G. biloba P. E. is the main extract under product development and application. However, G. biloba has been discarded as waste for a long time and has not been well developed and utilized. According to incomplete statistics, nearly 40,000 tons are discarded in China every year, which not only wastes resources but also pollutes the environment. Objective: This is an issue of great significance and adds value to scientific research. We aim to develop a key technology for resource recycling by combining G. biloba waste resources and waste treatment. Methods: Data were obtained by searching databases such as CNKI, and analyzing the herb application, modern application, main chemical components, utilization of waste parts, ways and modes combined with waste treatment, and safety of G. biloba. This systematic analysis can serve as a reference for the recycling of waste resources in other fields. Conclusion: The chemical constituents of the outer seed coat of G. biloba mainly include hydrophenols, phenolic acids, and biflavones, among which the phenolic acid of G. biloba can be used to extract glycolic acid, which can inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The domestic waste produced by tuberculosis (TB) patients contains a large number of bacilli, and the incidence of transmission can be reduced by using glycolic acid to inhibit the growth of TB bacilli in the waste.
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The use of goal attainment scaling in the acupuncture of children with intellectual disability p. 522
Si-Jia Zhang, Dong Lin, Li-Li Lin, Shi-Yi Qi, Meng Gong, Shi-Bin Li, Jie Zhang
DOI:10.4103/2311-8571.351509  
Objective: The therapeutic effect of acupuncture is often evaluated based on the experience and judgment of acupuncturists and the subjective feelings of patients. Thus, we investigated the suitability of goal attainment scaling (GAS), an objective outcome measurements, to evaluate the responsiveness of children with intellectual disability to acupuncture therapy. Methods: This is an assessor-blinded, single-group cohort study that included 17 children with intellectual disabilities. The therapeutic effect of acupuncture was assessed by the T scores of GAS at four time points during the 3-month treatment. The responsiveness of GAS to acupuncture therapy was measured using the standardized response mean (SRM). Results: Compared with control, the 4-, 8-, and 12-week scores improved significantly after treatment (P < 0.01, P ≤ 0.001, P ≤ 0.001), with significant differences between each month (P < 0.01, P ≤ 0.001, P ≤ 0.001). Furthermore, all periods assessed GAS (to measure the therapeutic effect of acupuncture) showed marked responsiveness (SRMs >0.8). Conclusion: GAS is responsive in evaluating individual changes in the acupuncture treatment of children with intellectual disabilities. It is a feasible tool to match both the needs of children with intellectual disabilities and the clinical characteristics of acupuncture.
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The mechanism of Panax Notoginseng in the treatment of heart failure based on biological analysis p. 530
Lei Peng, Lin Ma, Qian-Qian Jiang, Xue Tian, Ming-Yan Shao, Chang-Xiang Li, Xiao-Qian Sun, Xiao Ma, Xu Chen, Chun Li
DOI:10.4103/wjtcm.WJTCM_56_21  
Objective: This study aimed to explore the mechanism of Panax notoginseng (PNS) in the treatment of heart failure (HF) based on network pharmacology analysis combined with experimental verification. Materials and Methods: The potential targets and key pathways of effective components of PNS in the treatment of HF were revealed using network pharmacology. The postacute myocardial infarction (MI) HF rat model was established by ligating the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery. The rats were divided into three groups: model, PNS, and fenofibrate groups. PNS (0.75 g/kg) and fenofibrate (10 mg/kg) were administered for 28 days. The efficacy and target mechanism of PNS in the treatment of HF were verified by cardiac ultrasound, Masson staining, and western blotting (WB) techniques. Results: The results of network pharmacology showed that seven potentially active compounds, such as quercetin, were obtained, involving 105 targets of HF; GO function was enriched to 1240 items; and KEGG enrichment covered 1240 signal pathways. The results of echocardiography showed that EF and FS of HF rats after MI were significantly increased, while Left ventricular internal dimension diastole (LVIDd) and Left ventricular internal dimension systole (LVIDs) were significantly decreased (P < 0.001, P < 0.05). Masson staining showed that PNS could reduce the degree of myocardial fibrosis (MF) in HF. The results of WB showed that PNS could reduce the expression of the p-p38-MAPK, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), and Smad3 in HF rats. Conclusion: PNS inhibited MF and treated HF by regulating p-p38 MAPK-TGF-β pathway, which lays a theoretical foundation for further study of its pharmacological mechanism and key target.
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Metabolic characterization of the Badagan constitution in mongolian medicine by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry/MS p. 539
Xiao-Hua Bao, Li-Ming Bao, Chun Xiang, Siqin Gerile, Saihan Qiqige, Yu-Lan Xie
DOI:10.4103/2311-8571.351507  
This study aimed to identify the potential metabolic biomarkers of the Badagan constitution (BC) in Mongolian medicine. Serum samples from the participants with BCs (n = 32) and aggregative constitutions (n = 30) were analyzed by using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Meanwhile, principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis were used to characterize the endogenous metabolites and potential biomarkers, respectively. Fifteen of the 18 biomarkers in six metabolic pathways were significantly upregulated, including phosphatidylserine, sphingolipids, tryptophan, riboflavin and glutathione, and three biomarkers were significantly downregulated, including lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) (18:1), LysoPC (16:1), and lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LysoPE) (22:2). This study also implied that sphingolipid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and tryptophan metabolism played important roles in the BC. Therefore, metabolomics may improve the diagnostic efficacy of the BC in terms of the accuracy and comprehensiveness of a diagnosis based on this constitution. This result further reveals the mechanism of the constitution type in Mongolian medicine and provides a reference for the treatment of related diseases.
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Application of the data mining algorithm in the clinical guide medical records p. 548
Xin-Yuan Liu, Jing-Hua Li, Ying-Hui Wang, Lim Weihan, Yi-Meng Wang, Ye Tian, Yan Huang, Shao-Lei Tian, Qi Yu
DOI:10.4103/2311-8571.351511  
Objective: This study analyzed the data of the medical cases in the book, “Clinical Guide Medical records” using a data mining method, to provide a reference for Ye Tianshi's academic thoughts. Methods: We used the web version of the ancient and modern medical records cloud platform to complete distribution statistics, association rules, cluster analysis, and complex network analysis of all the medical records in the “Clinical Guide Medical records.” These methods were used to summarize the baseline data and to identify the core relationship between Chinese medicine diseases and Chinese medicine, as well as the Chinese medicine Classification. Results: A total of 2572 medical records, 3136 visits, and 2879 prescriptions of 1127 traditional Chinese medicines were included in this study. The most common diseases (such as hematemesis), syndromes (such as liver–stomach disharmony), symptoms (such as rapid pulse), disease sites (such as gastric cavity), disease properties (such as Yang deficiency), treatment methods (such as activating Yang), and traditional Chinese medicines (such as Poria cocos) were identified. Furthermore, medicines with a warm, flat, cold, sweet, or bitter taste with its effects on the lungs, spleen, and heart were the most common. The observed effects of the drugs included clearing dampness, promoting diuresis, and strengthening the spleen. The association analysis showed that the associations between TCM diseases and traditional Chinese medicines that had a high confidence were “phlegm and fluid retention–Poria cocos,” “diarrhea–Poria cocos,” etc. The cluster analysis showed that traditional Chinese medicines were classified into five categories. The complex network showed the core relationship between nine high-frequency diseases and nine high-frequency traditional Chinese medicine. Conclusion: This study revealed the most important relationships between traditional Chinese medicines diseases and traditional Chinese medicines and classified the most used traditional Chinese medicines. These findings may help the coming generations of doctors to make accurate diagnoses and treat patients effectively and to improve the clinicians' efficacy in clinical diagnosis and treatment.
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GUIDELINES Top

International Clinical Practice Guideline of Chinese Medicine-Age-related Macular Degeneration p. 556
Xing-Wei Wu, Li-Ke Xie, Li-Na Liang
DOI:10.4103/2311-8571.353119  
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