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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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October-December 2021
Volume 7 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 391-482

Online since Thursday, October 21, 2021

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Research progress of qiweibaizhu powder in treating digestive system diseases p. 391
Shi-Qi Liu, Ji Li
DOI:10.4103/wjtcm.wjtcm_51_21  
Diarrhea is a common clinical problem that can lead to health complications, including death. It is the second-most common cause of death in children. The World Health Organization introduced a program to encourage the development and use of traditional herbal medicines in the treatment of diarrhea. Qiweibaizhu Powder (QWBZP) is a well-known pediatric prescription in China that is commonly used to treat digestive system diseases, such as diarrhea, which is also a type of syndrome in traditional Chinese medicine. Many studies have examined the clinical effects and mechanisms of QWBZP, and innovative and improved formulations have been developed. Recent studies on the effects of QWBZP on diarrhea caused by human rotavirus, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and mesenteric lymphadenitis in experimental models and clinical trials with diarrhea patients have been reviewed. We conducted a literature search of several databases, including PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chongqing VIP Information Co., Ltd., and Wanfang. A short background of the QWBZP is also provided. The collective findings highlight the curative effects of QWBZP on diarrhea caused by viral infection, antibiotic use, and mesenteric lymphadenitis. Furthermore, QWBZP can regulate the balance of the gastrointestinal microbiota and protect and repair the intestinal mucosal barrier. This review will provide a reference for further studies on QWBZP.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Acupuncture for hot flashes: A literature review of randomized controlled trials conducted in the last 10 years p. 397
Ru-Ya Sheng, Yan Yan, Hai Hoang Linh Dang
DOI:10.4103/wjtcm.wjtcm_27_21  
Objective: To conduct a literature review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the use of acupuncture for hot flashes to analyze the characteristics of each study, draw a conclusion on the advantages and disadvantages of previous studies and provide the suggestions for future studies on the same topic. Methods: We searched English and Chinese databases for the literature published from 2009 to 2019 restricted in the English and Chinese language, and we included RCT using acupuncture as the main observational intervention for hot flashes by the criteria. Results: Twenty studies met our eligibility criteria. All the studies were of high quality and confirmed the clinical efficacy of acupuncture for hot flashes, although they used different controlled interventions. The acupuncture treatment and theory of acupoints selection were relatively consistent among the studies, and they had close trial designs. Conclusions: These RCTs on acupuncture were nonuniform, which made the studies on this topic lack coherence, leading to unsatisfactory research outcomes. Therefore, more professional research teams are needed to perform studies on a definite topic and draw a specific conclusion to previous studies before the next step is taken.
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Emotion regulation effect of baduanjin on college students: A pilot event-related potential study on late positive potential p. 408
Qiang Gu, Qing-Chuan Hu, Yu-Long Wei, Kevin Chen, Jing-Jing Dong, Shen-Yi Li, Wei-Wei Wang, Yi-Bin Zheng
DOI:10.4103/wjtcm.wjtcm_43_21  
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the emotion regulation effect of Baduanjin Qigong on college students. Methods: The late positive potential (LPP) components were recorded while performing emotional pictures from 12 college students with Baduanjin Qigong experience and 12 with no experience of any mind–body exercises. Results: Under positive emotional stimuli, greater LPP amplitudes were observed in the experimental group in the frontal, central, and temporal areas than in the control group. Under negative emotional stimuli, greater LPP amplitudes were found in the experimental group in the prefrontal area and smaller amplitudes in the occipital area than in the control group. Conclusion: The results reveal the emotion regulation effect on the event-related potential of Baduanjin Qigong to college students. The findings suggest that the regulatory effect of Baduanjin Qigong on emotional stimulation may be a possible reason for reducing the symptoms of depression and anxiety.
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A study on the mechanism of the protective effect of guangefang on sepsis-associated acute kidney injury p. 414
Shuo Li, Qing-Quan Liu
DOI:10.4103/2311-8571.328618  
Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the mechanism of Guan Gefang (GGF) ; raw rhubarb 30 g, cassia arboreal 30 g, raw oyster 30 g, ground elm 60 g, and dandelion 30 g) kidney protection. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group (Group N), a sepsis control group (Group S), and a sepsis + GGF group (Group G). For Group N, 8 ml/kg 0.9% NaCl was used as an enema; for Group S, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) method was used for modeling and 8 ml/kg 0.9% NaCl was used as an enema; and Group G, CLP was used for modeling and 8 ml/kg GGF was used as an enema. All of the enemas were applied once daily for 4 days. The indices of serum creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid (UA), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) were compared across each group. Results: Compared to Group S, Group G had lower levels of SCr, BUN, and UA (P < 0.05), while the activities of mTOR and JAK2 were significantly inhibited. Conclusion: GGF may have inhibited the JAK2 or mTOR signaling pathways to protect the rats' kidneys, which had sepsis-associated acute kidney injury.
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Mechanism research of chonglou as a pain killer by network pharmacology p. 419
Yu-Tong Liu, Yong-Li Situ, Ting-Ting Zhao, Li-Na Long, He-Kun Zeng, Shang-Dong Liang, Günther Schmalzing, Hong-Wei Gao, Jin-Bin Wei, Chuan-Hua He, Hong Nie
DOI:10.4103/wjtcm.wjtcm_84_20  
Objective: The objective of this study is to screen the therapeutic targets of pain of traditional Chinese medicine Chonglou and explore the relevant mechanism by network pharmacology techniques and methods. Materials and Methods: The chemical components of Chonglou were collected according to chemistry database and related literature. SwissADME was used to collect the potential active ingredients from all the chemical components of Chonglou and SwissTarget Prediction was utilized to predict their targets. The genes related to pain were collected from GeneCards and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man databases. Joint genes were uploaded to the online string database for the analysis and the PPI network was constructed. The “Chonglou-active component-target-pain” network was constructed by Cytoscape 3.7.1 software, Gene Ontology (GO) functional enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were performed for key target proteins. The top three active components with most targets in the network were docked with the target proteins by the molecular docking technique. Results: A total of nine potential active compounds of Chonglou, 264 potential target genes, 2385 targets of pain disorder, and 128 common targets for drug and disease were screened. One hundred and thirty-one GO items were identified by the GO enrichment analysis, and 23 related signaling pathways were identified by the KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. Molecular-docking results show that pennogenin is the optimal butt ligand of PIK3CA, STAT3, mitogen-activated protein kinase 14, and ADORA1. Conclusion: It is preliminarily revealed that Chonglou might treat pain through multiple targets, multiple biology processes and multiple pain-related signaling pathways, providing reference for the subsequent experimental research.
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Effect of medical qigong therapy on distress, fatigue, and quality of life in head and neck cancer patients undergoing intensity-modulated radiation therapy: A single arm clinical trial p. 427
Priyanka S Sagaonkar, Renu Pattanshetty
DOI:10.4103/wjtcm.wjtcm_15_21  
Background: Cancer of Head and Neck (HNC) is the 2nd common cancer in India leading to around 8% of the global cancer mortality. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is advanced method minimizing exposure of radiation to adjacent normal structures but is associated with higher fatigue indirectly elevating distress levels. Medical Qigong (MQ), a meditative mind therapy has numerous health benefits. The purpose of the current study was to investigate effect of MQ therapy on distress, fatigue, and quality of life in HNC patients undergoing IMRT. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 16 Hospitalized HNC subjects undergoing IMRT aged 18–65 years. All the subjects performed Qigong Walk Cycle for 5 weekdays for 4 weeks from initiation of IMRT. Scores of Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), 6 min walk distance (6MWD), Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck (FACT-HN) were documented at the baseline and at end of 4th week and compared. Results: IBM SPSS Statistics version 23.0; Indian version of Windows was used for statistical analysis. The 16 HNC subjects majorly rural residents (62.5%) of mean age group 47.68 ± 10.25 years with tobacco chewing as prevalent habit (94%) with maximum cases recorded in stage III of the disease. The pre and post test score comparison of serum cortisol, BFI and 6MWD found high statistical significance with P = 0.001 while that of the total and all components of FACT HN was found to be significant with P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: MQ therapy was effective in managing the levels of distress and fatigue thereby improving quality of life of all HNC subjects.
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Exploring the pharmacological mechanism of danhe granules against hyperlipidemia by means of network pharmacology and verified by preliminary experiments p. 436
Zhi-Qing Zhang, Ai-Ping Chen, Tong Yu, Shuang-Jie Yang, De-Shuai Yu, Ran Yang, Xin-Lou Chai
DOI:10.4103/wjtcm.wjtcm_59_21  
Objective: This study explored the multicomponent, multitarget, and multipathway mechanism of Danhe granules (DG) against hyperlipidemia through network pharmacology. The relevant targets and pathways were verified by preliminary experiments. Methods: The active components of DG were selected by TCMSP and TCMIP database, and the component-target network diagram was constructed by Cytoscape 3.7.1. The protein–protein interaction network of targets was constructed and core targets were screened out by STRING11.0 database. Metascape database and Cytoscape 3.7.1 were used to enrich the target and establish a hyperlipidemia model in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to detect blood lipid and oxidative stress indexes and observed pathological changes of aorta by H and E staining. Results: The results showed that a total of seven active components of DG were screened out, including quercetin, sitosterol, luteolin, kaempferol, etc. There were 127 corresponding targets, including AKT1, tumor necrosis factor, TP53, interleukin-6, RELA, vascular endothelial growth factor, superoxide dismutases, and catalase. It is mainly involved in biological processes such as drug response, regulation of apoptosis, redox reaction, and lipid reaction. There were 573 signal pathways corresponding to the target, including HIF-1 signal pathway, TNF signal pathway, VEGF signal pathway, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, etc. The experiment verified that DG can reduce the blood lipid of SD rats by regulating the process of oxidative stress. Conclusions: This study made a preliminary study on the pharmacological mechanism of DG against hyperlipidemia and laid the foundation for the research and development of new drugs and subsequent in-depth research.
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Effect and Signaling Pathways of Nelumbinis Folium in the Treatment of Hyperlipidemia Assessed by Network Pharmacology p. 445
Qiu Pan, Zhi-Qing Zhang, Cong-Yang Tian, Tong Yu, Ran Yang, Xin-Lou Chai
DOI:10.4103/2311-8571.328619  
Objective: In this study, the effects and signaling pathways of Nelumbinis folium in the treatment of hyperlipidemia were analyzed based on network pharmacology and molecular docking. Materials and Methods: The main components and targets of Nelumbinis folium were searched through traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database and analysis platform (TCMSP), and the active components were selected according to their oral availability and drug-like properties. The main targets of hyperlipidemia were identified using the DisGeNET database. Venny 2.1.0 was used to take the intersection of both targets, which were submitted to the STRING database to construct the protein-protein interaction network model. The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery 6.7 was used to conduct gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genome pathway enrichment analyses of the targets. Cytoscape 3.7.1 was used to construct the component-target-pathway network. AutoDock Vina molecular docking software was used to study the binding effect and mechanism of the core components and targets of N. folium. Results: Fifteen active components of N. folium and 195 potential targets were selected through TCMSP, whereas 4216 targets for hyperlipidemia were selected from DisGeNET. Further, 138 potential cross-targets of hyperlipidemia were identified. A network of component-target-pathway was constructed. Quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin were the core components, which played an important role in anti-hyperlipidemia, mainly through the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance (IR) signaling pathways. Molecular docking results showed that quercetin had the lowest docking energies with peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, INSR (-6.20,-10.00, and -8.40 (kcal/mol, respectively). The binding mode was mainly hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces. Conclusions: The active components of N. folium may regulate lipid metabolism by participating in the signaling pathways of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and IR.
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Network pharmacology-based exploration of the mechanism of guanxinning tablet for the treatment of stable coronary artery disease p. 456
Song Sheng, Qiao-Ning Yang, Hao-Ning Zhu, Yong-Yue Xian
DOI:10.4103/wjtcm.wjtcm_25_21  
Objective: Network pharmacology was utilized to explore the mechanism of Guanxinning (GXN) tablet for the treatment of stable coronary artery disease (SCAD). Materials and Methods: First, active ingredients and therapeutic targets were predicted by databases and gene chip. Then, we constructed the compound-target (C-T) network and target-disease (T-D) network to screen hub compounds and therapeutic targets based on contribution index (CI), degree, closeness, betweenness, and coreness in the networks. Enrichment analysis was performed on hub therapeutic targets, and finally, the verification of hub ingredients and hub therapeutic targets was performed through molecular docking. Results: With “oral bioavailability ≥30%, druglikeness ≥0.18, and half-life ≥4 h” as screening conditions, 58 active ingredients were obtained. Seven hundred and seventeen compound targets and 636 SCAD targets were retrieved using databases and gene chip, and the intersection of both (139 targets) was defined as therapeutic targets. According to CI, degree, betweenness, closeness, and coreness, 2 hub compounds and 13 hub therapeutic targets were chosen from the C-T network and T-D network, respectively. The Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis indicated that GXN treated SCAD from several aspects including inflammatory reaction, oxidative stress, nutritional metabolism, blood pressure regulation, ventricular remodeling, vascular smooth muscle proliferation, angiogenesis, and platelet aggregation. Tissue enrichment analysis revealed that the therapeutic targets were enriched in multiple organs and tissues. The excellent binding force between the hub compounds and hub therapeutic targets was verified by molecular docking. Conclusions: The treatment of SCAD by GXN has the characteristics of multiple ingredients, multiple targets, and multiple approaches. Consequently, it may theoretically treat SCAD from multiple angles and levels.
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Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis inhibited by huangqi guizhi wuwu decoction via th2 cytokine enhancement p. 467
Yong Peng, Fei-Zhou Zhu, Xiang Deng, Jian-Xiong Zhou, Shuai Gao, Zhi-Xing Chen, Shan-Shan Yang, Lu Gan, Zhuo-Lin Li, Qian-Qian Liu
DOI:10.4103/2311-8571.328617  
Background: Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu decoction (HQGZWW) exhibits good effects when administered to treat multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Understanding the precise mechanism of this decoction is thus important. Based on the findings of our previous study, the aim of the present study was to understand the role of antigen-specific CD8+ T-cells on the pathogenesis of MS/EAE when HQGZWW is administered as treatment. Methods: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) 35-55-induced mice were administered distilled water, prednisone, and high dose or low dose HQGZWW. After purified CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells were stimulated with the MOG35-55 peptide, proliferation and cytokine secretion assays were performed. To establish the adoptive transfer EAE model, naïve mice were injected with MOG35-55 -CD8+ or CD4+ T-cells. Results: Significant improvements in EAE score and pathology were observed in the high dose HQGZWW and prednisone groups. Compared to the low dose HQGZWW and distilled water groups, lower antigen-specific responses, lower levels of interferon-gamma, and higher levels of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 from CD8+ and CD4+ T cells were observed in the high dose HQGZWW and prednisone groups. Finally, the EAE score was observed to be similar between the high dose HQGZWW group and prednisone group; however, this finding was not observed in the low dose HQGZWW group. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that high dose HQGZWW has similar effects on cell proliferation, cytokine secretion, and EAE score to prednisone, while low dose HQGZWW does not have such effect. The protective role of HQGZWW against EAE might thus depend on the Th2 cytokine secretion profile induced by either MOG35-55 specific CD8+ or CD4+ T-cells.
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CiteSpace-based metrical and visualization analysis of tai chi chuan an algesia p. 477
Yu-Qi Mao, Feng Zhang, Hai-Bei Song, Yi-Fan Li, Jin-Fan Tang, Peng Yang, Li-Zhou Liu, Yong Tang, Shu-Guang Yu, Hai-Yan Yin
DOI:10.4103/2311-8571.317994  
Objective: The objective of the study was to explore the research status and hot topics that are most studied about in Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) analgesia through a metrical and visualization analysis of the literature and provide some references for the experimental research on the analgesic effect of TCC and its clinical applications. Methods: The literature on TCC analgesia was collected from the Web of Science database, and the metrical and visualization analysis was performed using the CiteSpace. 5.6.R4 software in terms of publication outputs, countries, institutions, keywords, highly cited articles, and highly cited journals. Results: The number of annual publications gradually increased over time. The five research groups presented stable cooperative relationships and more publications. The authors ranked as top 1 were from America rather than China, which has more publications. The most common keywords were Tai Chi, randomized controlled trial, older adults, exercise, pain, low back pain, quality of life, management, etc. The literature on knee osteoarthritis and fibromyalgia had the highest citation frequency. The journals with high citation frequency included Cochrane Database System Review, Pain, and Plos One. Conclusions: Increasing attention has been paid to TCC analgesia. Randomized controlled trials, older adults, low back pain, and quality of life were found to be most studied in this field. Investigating clinical efficacy and conducting meta-analyses could be a promising direction in the future. The international cooperation and literature quality of TCC analgesia should be further strengthened.
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